Training of doctors at the University as a higher educational institution of Ukraine of IVaccreditation level is performed at the stages of pregraduation and postgraduate training (internship training, master course).
Medicine faculty isof the same age as the twentieth century: on September 1, 1900 in Odessa, the inauguration of the medicine faculty of NovorossiyskUniversity was held. In 1920 it was reorganized into the medical academy, and in 1922 – intothe medical institute. In 1932 the medicine faculty of Odessa medical institute was divided into medicine and pediatric faculties. In 1994, when the institution received university status,from these faculties there were established two medicine faculties with specialties of “General Medicine” and “Pediatrics”. In 2011, in connection with the resumption of students’ education at the university withspecialty in”Medical and Preventive Care ” (sanitary and hygienic medicine), the increasing number of students and the change of the university’s status from state into national one, medicine faculties were divided into four ones. Now specialists are trained in “Medicine” with the specialty in “General Medicine” at the medicine faculties № 1 and № 2,”Pediatrics” -at the medicine faculty № 3,”Medical and Preventive Care” – at the medicine faculty № 4. Since 2012, at the medicine faculty № 4 there is also training of bachelors in “Social and Political Sciences” (specialty – “Practical psychology (by types)”) and “Social Services” (specialty – “Social assistance”).
Educational, scientific and medical and preventive process in the university is carried out by personnel of 62 departments. Studying is conducted by over 840 teachers – professors, associate professors, senior lecturers, assistants, among them there are 2 academicians of NAMS of Ukraine (prof. V.Zaporozhan, prof.A. Lobenko), 4 associate members of NAMS of Ukraine (professors V. Kresyun, M.Aryayev, V. Vitenskyi, K.Kosenko), 5 laureates of the State Prize of Ukraine, 2 laureates of Lenin Komsomol Prize, 21 honoured workers of Science and Technology, 19 honoureddoctors, 3honoured workers of Education, 3honoured inventors, innovators, 5 members of the Presidium and expert councils of the Department of personnel certification and the State Attestation Commission of DES ofyouthand sport of Ukraine, 47 members of specialized academic councils.
Over the years of the university’s existence well-known scientific and pedagogical schools have been formed andthey continueto operate successfully and brought worldwide fame and now the leading scientists of our university are their successors:
- obstetric and gynecologic school, founded and developed by prominent scientists: Aharonov A., MalyiA.,Kukolyev Y., Rembez I., Shyleiko V., academician of NAMS of Ukraine Zaporozhan V.;
- anaesthetic school, founded by professorAryayev L.M. who is the founder of the first department of anesthesiology in Ukraine and his followers prof. Vladyka A.S., h.w.s.t. of Ukraineprof. ChuyevP., prof. TarabrynO.;
- biochemical school, created by prof. Medvedev A.K. and developed by professors Rosenfeld L., Tsuverkalov D., Savitsky I., Mardashko O.;
- immunological school, formed on the basis of the department of medical biology owing to the scientific activity of laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine, h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Bazhora Y.
- neurologic school, founded by prof. Popov N. M. and developed byhis followers prof. Yanyshevsky V., academician of AS of Ukraine Markelov G., professors Sharapov V., Sokolyansky G., honoured worker of higher school professor Kurako Y.,prof. Sonoma A.
- ophthalmological school, founded by well-known scientist Golovin S. in 1903, the successor of his ideas was Filatov V. – academician, Hero of Socialist Labour, Laureate of several State Prizes; school success is closely connected with the names of professors:Kalf S., Cherkasova I., Logay I.,h.w.s.t. of Ukraine Venger G.
- pediatric school, founded by prof. Yakubovich V. and developed by prominent scientist prof. Hohetydze S., Skrotsky A., prof. ZuzanovaV.,h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Yakymenko T. and academician of AMS of Ukraine, twice laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine, prof. Reznik B., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Zubarenko O., laureate of the State Prize, prof. Babiy I., associate member of NAMS of Ukraine, prof. Aryayev M., prof. Kharchenko Y.;
- roentgenologic school, established by Rosenblat Y. and further developed by prof. Usachenko M., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Dubov Y.; h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Sokolov, V.;
- sanitary and hygienic school, established with the opening of the Department of Hygieology and of the same name institute in Novorossiysk Universityin 1903, which was headed byprominent scientist and hygienist G. Khlopin. At the same time there was established the first bacteriologic station in Odessa. There were established specialized department of municipal hygiene, occupational hygiene, food hygiene, etc. It was in Odessa, where the first in the world department of epidemiology was established, whose head wasGromashevskiy L. Further, prominent hygienist prof.Stoyanovskiy O. was the head of the department of Hygieologywho was already within medical institute. From 1966 till 1983 department was headed by his disciple prof. Babov D. In former USSR the department has became leadingin toxicitystudies of lubricating and cooling additives and study of the problem of sanitary and hygienic sea protection;
- therapeutic school, founded by prof. Volter P. and concerned with the names of professors:Levashov S., Yanowski F., Dmytrenko L., Strazhesko N., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine Levina T., academician of Academy of Medical Sciences of USSR Yasynovskiy M., Minakov O., Zolotarev A., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine Yakymenko O., Yurlov V., Polyakov A., Zolotoryova N., Karpenko Y., associate professor Shtanko V.;
- urological school,concerned with the names of Gasparyan A., Velikanov K. and Kostyev F.;
- pharmacological school, founded in 1902 by prominent scientist, prof. Borisov P. and it was developed by well-known scientists in the sphere of pharmacology and toxicology by professorsLavrov D., Tsyganov S.,Maksymovych Y., associate member of NAMS of Ukraine, h.w.s.t. of Ukraine prof. Kresyun V.;
- physiological school, prof.Sechenov I. was its founder and professors Verigo B., Babkin B., academician of NAS of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine prof. Serkov F.,h.w.s.t. of Ukraine, prof. Shandra O. were its followers;
- surgical school, in its original creation there were the aoutstanding surgeons of the nineteenth century Pirogov M., Skliphasovskiy M., professors Nalivkin A., ZylberberhY., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine Dejneka I., Voloshin M., h.w.s.t. of Ukraine Dvuzhylna K., h.w.s.t. and Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine Dotsenko O. and Dmitriev B. were its followers, h.w.s.t. of Ukraine, prof. Heshelin S., laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine, h.w.s.t. of Ukraine, prof. Hrubnik V.,prof. Hrubnik Y.and others are its followers at present.
Training at medicine faculties of “Medicine” in “General Medicine”specialty is fulfilled through the educational and qualification level 7.12010001 – specialist and 8.12010001 – master degree; “Pediatrics”specialty is fulfilled through the educational and qualification level 7.12010002 – specialist and 8.12010002 master degree; “Medical and Preventive Care “is fulfilled through the educational and qualification level 7.12010003 – specialist and 8.12010003 – master degree.
After learningof the educational and professional program (EPP) for general medical training,doctor qualificationis conferred to the specialistand he is determined to be able to perform professional work of the interneedoctor and trainee doctor. Training of medical personnel due to EPP of medical direction is performed according to the following educational and qualification level: specialist (complete higher medical education) –the training is performed onbasis of general secondary education or basic secondary medical education.
Since 2004, at higher educational institutions of III-IV accreditation level of Ukraine training of specialists iscarried out by means of credit-modular system of the educational process organisation.
Credit-modular system of the educational process organization (CMSEPO) is a model of the educational process, which is based on combination of modular technologies of education and credit educational units (credits of ECTS).
ECTS (European Credit Transfer System) is European system of interacceptance of credits as a measuring unit of the working intensity of student’s workload. It is based on the ground of the extent of the educational work that is fulfilled by students (in terms of credits) in order to accumulate credits and have a possibility of interacceptance in other higher education institutions within the single European educational scope.
ECTS credits is a unit of measuring of the work amount that a student has to fulfill while learning educational discipline (discipline module). One ECTS credit makes up 30 classroom hours and contains all types of educational work of the student – in-class learning (lectures, practical training, seminars) and independent work of students (IWS is the preparation for the practical training, writing reports, etc.). For the studying of the particular discipline (module) the student is given a certain number of credits that are counted only in case of successful acquisition of knowledge and practical skills provided by the working program of the discipline.
Module is a recorded, complete and logically combined part of the educational discipline, which is implemented through appropriate forms of educational process (in-classlearning and IWS) and ends with the final checking. The module consists of notional modules.
Notional module is a system for learning elements which is combined on the ground of compliance with certain learning object.
- learning of subjects which are structured on the basis ofthe module as recordedandlogicallycompleted part of the curriculum of the educational discipline, practice, that are fulfilled by appropriate forms of the educational process and end with the final module checking;
- implementation of ECTS credits as a unit of measuring of student’s workload that is required for discipline learning.
- simultaneousimplementation for students’ assessment of absolute assessment scale and assessment scale of ECTS, which is a ranking.
The students training in medical universities of Ukraine in “General Medicine”, “Pediatrics”, “Medical and Preventive Care ” is carried out for 5 years with a specialization on the 6th year according to the single curriculum, typical and working programs in the disciplines.
Training consists of two stages of the doctor’s pregraduation training: preclinical and clinical. The educational process is a subjectintegrated and directed at adherence of logical sequence of disciplines teaching that formappropriate training cycles: humanitarian and social and economic (foreign and Ukrainian languages according to the professional training, philosophy, foundationof economic theories, etc..), natural scientific (fundamental – medical biology, biochemistry, normal and abnormal anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, etc..) and professional ones(therapy, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, urology, etc.)..
In Odessa national medical university (ONMU)students’ training is performed at specialized departments that accomplish training of 1-6 coursesstudents from basic fundamental to professionally oriented disciplines according to the principle of succession. Students study basic medical and social and humanitarian disciplines on the 1st and 2nd courses. In our university students have an opportunity to study in the oldest professional museums in the country: anatomical and pathologicoanatomic, which contains unique drugs that made by many generations of university’s students. The studying of clinical disciplines begins from the 3rd course.
At the university the system of doctors’ training in “General Medicine” provides introduction ofpregraduation preparation mainly of general practitioners who are able to get specialization of the general practitioner– family doctor for the first aid treatment at the postgraduate stage, that is used in countries of Europe, that enables young professionals to be competitive on the European and worldwide labor markets.
Peculiarities of the profession teaching of “Pediatrics” are more profoundteaching of students at specialized departments of propedeutics of pediatrics, pediatrics № 1, neonatology and bioethics, pediatrics № 2, children’s infectious diseases, surgery № 4 with pediatric surgery.
Peculiarities of the profession teaching of “Medical and Preventive Care” are more profoundteaching of students at specialized departments ofcommon hygiene, hygiene and medical ecology, occupational pathology, clinical and laboratory and functional diagnostics, general and clinical epidemiology and biosafety.
According to the curriculum of “General Medicine”, “Pediatrics” and “Medical and Preventive Care” during the academic year all studentsundergo practical training in hospitals that is carried out on the 2ndcourse – aspatients’ care, on the 3rdcourse – as nursing practice . Professional clinical practical training of students on the 4-6 courses is carried out in accordance with the requirements of educational qualification specification during the studying of clinical and hygienic disciplines and during practical training.
On the graduationdepartments at the university there aredepartment of the internal medicine № 3 with the course of nursing car; department of the occupational internal medicine № 4; department of the occupational diseases, clinical and laboratory and functional diagnostics;department of the infectious diseases; department of the phthisiopulmonology;department of the anesthesiology, intensive care with postgraduate training; the department of thesurgery № 1;department of thesurgery № 4 with the pediatric surgery;the department of theobstetrics and gynecology № 1 and 2;department of thepediatrics № 1, neonatology and bioethics;department of thepediatrics № 2; department of thepediatric infectious diseases;department of thesocial medicine and medical management;department of thehygiene and medical ecology;department of thegeneral and clinical epidemiology and biosafety.
State certification of graduates includes standardized test and practically oriented state exams. Standardized test state exam –licensed integrated exam consists of two exams “Krok 1”, “Krok 2”. “Krok1” is performed after the 3rd course and measures the performance quality of professional components of basic higher education in 9 fundamental disciplines (anatomy, histology, medical biology, physiology, microbiology, biochemistry, pathomorphology, pathological physiology, pharmacology).
Licensed integrated test exam “Krok 2. General medical training”is the component part of state certification of graduates of higher medical educational institutions and measures the performance quality of professional components of complete higher medical education after finishing of the 6th course. At the end of the 6th course the graduate takes practically oriented state exam that is conducted in 2 units: the first unit contains general, occupational and infectious diseases, surgical diseases with pediatric surgery; obstetrics and gynecology, the secondunit contains children diseases with children infectious diseases and hygiene,social medicine, organization and economics of health care maintenance.
After graduation from highereducation institution the graduate take internship training during 1-3 years according to the specialty, after that he takes the certified test of standardized state examination “Krok 3”.
Comparative analysis of medical and pharmaceutical education of Ukraine with the European system was performed in accordance with the order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine from 22.03.2004 № 148 “On actions for implementation of the Bologna Declaration statute in the system of higher medical and pharmaceutical education. On this ground and on the basis offield standards of higher education in Ukraine there was created a curriculum of specialists’ training in “General Medicine”, “Pediatrics”, “Medical and Preventive Care” in higher educational institutions of III-IV accreditation levels of Ukraine for “specialist” educational and qualification level with “doctor” qualification (the order of Ministry of Health of Ukraine from 19.10.2009 № 749 with alterations from 08.07.2010 № 539).
The curriculum is structured in ECTS credits that enablesto recognize the learning achievements of students regardless of training place. Credit includes all types of student’s work which are provided in the approved individual plan: in-class and independent work, practical training, preparation for the state certification, taking of licensed integrated exams “Krok-1” and “Krok-2”, practically oriented state exam.
The curriculum is worked outon the basis of 6 years of education or 360 ECTS credits. One academic year lasts 40 weeks and includes 60 credits (1 week contains 1,5ECTS credits), 1 ECTS credit contains 30 teaching hours. The academic year consists of 1800 teaching hours. Students undertake practical training on 2-5 courses with 21 credits in total, more than 60 credits per year.
The general training workload includes time for lectures, workshops, seminars and laboratory training, consultations, practical trainings, independent and individual work and checking measures.
Training at medicine faculties is carried out on budget and contract basis of full-time training.
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